17 reasons to avoid fake lawns – how bad is artificial grass for the environment?

I never design gardens with fake grass for aesthetic, experiential and environmental reasons. That said, some of my clients do still choose to install it, as do some of my friends and family, which makes this blog post a tad awkward to write. I don’t mean to make people feel bad for choosing astro turf – I’m non judgemental about it but it’s important people understand exactly why it’s bad for the environment and not great for us, then we’re informed for future decisions. A recent Government and Parliament petition received over 10,000 signatures calling for its ban.

1) Artificial turf uses huge volumes of plastic

If you stop to think about all of the materials in your home and garden, you’d be hard pressed to find anything that uses so much plastic. Single use plastic straws have been banned and replaced by paper in the UK and are a good comparison to the plastic lawn although it feels different because the fake lawn is multiple use. I ran a quick calculation that you can do yourself whereby if a person used say, one disposable plastic straw a day for a year, over the course of 15 years that would be 21,900 straws for a family of 4 at 12kg of plastic. Looking at one product, fake grass weighs around 1.42kg/metre. Our little urban garden is around 35 square metres so if we were to cover half in plastic grass, that would be 24.85kg of plastic, still there after 15 years and over four times the amount of plastic that would exist if the two of us used a plastic straw every single day for that time. Equivalent to the amount of plastic in over 24,000 plastic straws for even a small piece of fake grass.

2) Plastic grass can’t or won’t be recycled

Astro turf is made from a variety of human made unnatural materials including polyethylene, polypropylene and nylon. These materials are built to last, potentially for centuries. While individually these components can theoretically be recycled, in reality this isn’t happening for fake lawns for the following reasons. First, the materials are often bound together making it impossible to separate them and therefore making it impossible to recycle, because recycling of the materials requires them to be separated and pure. Some products are made from just one material which means at least, theoretically they can be recycled. Secondly, they need to be clean to be recycled. After spending 5 – 10 years outside on top of soil and surrounded by planting, with people running and walking across it, the amount of debris they collect (like a densely packed broom) makes the material very hard to prepare for recycling. You can’t recycle plastics with contaminants in like soil and grit, which is why we’re supposed to rinse plastic before putting in the recycling bin. Thirdly, this is a specialist form of recycling, local councils certainly aren’t set up to recycle rolls of fake grass, they need to be sent away. At the time of writing, the number of specialist recycling plants was non-existent in the UK, that doesn’t even account for people organising to send it off (3 years since publishing this, one person has been in touch to tell me one recycling company has opened in the UK, though there is no data on numbers recycled vs numbers sent to landfill for the country). What will most people prefer, dumping it for free in the local tip or paying for it to be taken away and cleaned for recycling? Hopefully one day what exists can be recycled as we need the existing lawns to be recycled, but that doesn’t account for the remaining 14 points.

3) Pieces of plastic grass will pollute soils for centuries

Like it or not pieces of plastic lawn break down and contaminate our soils for centuries regardless of being recycled. With the best will in the world, individual blades of fake grass tear off and blow into planting areas or bare soil nearby. Although plastic takes decades or centuries to deteriorate, it does still deteriorate releasing microplastics into soils which find their way into soil micro organisms. We’re only just starting to understand this is happening and the damage it is causing to the natural world. Eventually we may be able to recycle the bulk of a plastic lawn but it will be impossible to extract microplastics from soil and soil life.

4) Astro turf has a big carbon foot print from manufacture, transport and installation

The processes involved in mixing, colouring and moulding all of the plastic releases carbon. In addition, further carbon is released from the energy used (i.e. from electricity production). Then you have to factor the carbon released from transporting these heavy rolls by lorry from the manufacturing plant to the customer, probably being first transported to a storage facility. Soil is a natural carbon store, especially with plants growing on it, slowly taking carbon from the atmosphere and putting it back into the plants and the ground (why people want to plant more trees – which is a problematic view in itself but a whole other discussion!) By digging out a real lawn which has carbon locked in it and the top 15-30cm-ish of soil, not only do you remove a large area of planting that is actively locking carbon into the ground, but you’re releasing all of that locked carbon back into the atmosphere. The top layer of soil is removed to put down a base of hardcore and sand, transported in, releasing exhaust gasses. Once the astro turf is in place, that’s it, that whole area stops locking carbon from the atmosphere.

5) Fake lawns look awful after only a few years

This gives them a very short shelf life in comparison to other hardlandscaping products. Despite manufacturers claiming they last for 10 – 20 years (which is still a short a life span for outdoor surfaces) in reality the pieces of plastic grass blades become worn down and squashed in the same way as carpets, although obviously the plastic is tougher for outdoor and rougher use.

6) Astro turf kills soil life beneath it

By creating a dense plastic barrier on top of compacted soil and sand, no garden material can reach the soil beneath it. Things like leaf litter and grass clippings, which may be in tiny amounts in a normal garden after mowing and tidying but still exist. Natural materials like this are essential for feeding soil organisms like worms and microscopic animals that keep soil healthy. This is little different to impermeable hard landscaping like patios but a really important point if you’re considering replacing a living lawn with a fake lawn. Even if you remove all clippings and leaves from a real lawn, real grass grows and dies back and rejuvenates every year. Roots grow and die, some leaves die and these form natural material drawn into the soil to feed soil life. I could go into great detail about why soil life is important because it’s the building blocks of our entire way of life; a simple example is birds picking out bugs and worms for food. Some astro turf will have worms beneath but this will be under a new laying or toward the edges where soil is richer from nearby planting. Over time, there will be nothing beneath fake grass for most soil life to survive.

7) Plastic deprives people from contact with a natural surface

This may sound really silly if you’re thinking of installing plastic grass, escaping a natural surface is probably one of the reasons you want it in the first place, but I urge you to think again. I actually feel this is one of the most important points on this list. Some of my favourite childhood memories are sitting on a soft lawn, hands on the grass, plucking a blade of grass to whistle with, or a daisy or dandelion flower, or a plantain leaf. That sense of touch and the smell of mown grass is such an important part of my life experience and remains so today. Swapping this natural element of a garden can make sense for stopping mud or saving time, but it deprives people of something much bigger and much more valuable – one of the main contacts with nature, especially important in urban areas. I feel sad at the thought of children growing up with fake lawns and everything they will miss in those early years as a result. Even getting a bit muddy or seeing a spider, all of these things are little life experiences that make us who we are.

8) Fake lawns have no wildlife benefit whatsoever

Even a perfectly kept lawn with no weeds has a base layer of wildlife value because it’s a good home to millions of soil dwelling critters, most so microscopic we can’t see them. Worms, grubs and grass eating caterpillars, slugs and snails all feed birds too. I’m guessing you may be thinking “urgh I don’t want those on my lawn!” but you won’t see most of these most of the time – though I would encourage you to try and see the benefit and beauty of these little lives. A lawn with daisies and other flowering weeds go up in wildlife value ten-fold. The Plantlife charity found a lawn kept to around 10cm or thereabouts has even more weedy wildflowers and supports thousands more bees, hoverflies and other pollinators.

9) Looks – plastic lawns never sit naturally in any environment

This is the point that I guess is subjective and most people who think fake grass looks neat won’t like me saying: astro turf never looks like anything but astro turf. One of the reasons for having it often cited is that it’s used where real grass won’t grow, such as in full shade but that’s one of the reasons it doesn’t look right. It’s obvious it’s not supposed to be growing there. As astro turf improves its look, products that look increasingly like real grass come to the market that look more convincing but when laid still look like unnatural blocks of plastic grass. It’s the imperceptible things like blowing in the wind, the way it looks in rain, the smell, small imperfect patches or insects and birds – these little things all add up in our mind to point out this thing isn’t real due to their absence.

10) Plastic lawns can overheat in summer making them unusable

Plastic lawns retain heat from the sun more than a natural lawn, in some instances this can make them so hot that you can’t walk on them.

11) Fake lawns need cleaning and maintaining

As an unnatural surface that doesn’t recycle germs, dirt and other debris as a natural lawn would, you need to clean it. This includes brushing, washing and quite often, hoovering!

12) Some fake lawns can give friction burns

Not all to be fair, but one touch of fake grass will tell you that you or your children won’t want to skid across it with bare knees.

13) There are many alternatives for soft surfaces

In a number of designs for family gardens I’ve created we use a thick layer of bark chip in play areas and a real lawn for running around etc. There isn’t any need for a fake lawn, which is actually far harder a surface than natural bark chip. You don’t want children falling off a swing onto fake grass.

14) There are alternatives to fake lawns for flat surfaces for wheel chairs or people with poor balance

I can understand why people would want a fake lawn in this situation but again I personally would want to find a solution that doesn’t harm the environment and gives everyone the equal opportunity to experience a natural lawn or natural garden. A real lawn can be firm and flat if it’s maintained well and perfectly accessible to people in wheelchairs or people less sure on their feet. Around a real lawn, paths and patios can be laid for further access during wet weather or in winter. In fact, in accessible gardens I’ve designed we simply haven’t bothered with large lawns, instead having a good easily manageable flat lawn and then offering plenty of paths through larger plantings to touch and sit within.

15) Living lawns can grow in shaded plots

Obviously we have to be realistic because with too much shade, lawns really aren’t possible but there are shade tolerant grasses that can be used. Quite often when people say to me that their garden is too shaded, I actually just see before me poor maintenance. If it really were too shaded, I would just design in something else, such as woodland planting, not persevere with a fake lawn.

16) Maintenance of a real lawn is cheaper

I actually feel lawns as a concept are overrated in general and I don’t understand why people insist on having them when often they don’t use them. But if you do use the lawn, and there are good examples such as for children, sunbathing, sports and picnics, all it takes is getting the lawn care regime right. This is fairly scientific but really comes down to knowing when to mow it properly, to keep an eye out for problems like compaction and to reseed and repair patches. If this sounds like too much hard work, hire a professional lawn care gardener. For the cost of a fake lawn you could hire someone for well over five years, longer than it will take for a fake lawn to look worn out and grubby. Robot lawn mowers are also a thing of wonder, they do work well and although fairly expensive, are still a tenth of the cost of having astro turf installed.

17) Fake lawns can cause surface run off contributing to flooding

Natural lawns or planting allow water to drain into the soil surface easily, helping to lock deluges of rain in the ground. Whereas solid surfaces cause run off which leads to flooding usually by overloading drains and sewers with too much water all at once. Occasionally they contribute to direct flooding too, especially in paved front gardens. Although water can drain through fake lawns (at least if laid well it should!) this can be slower and less effective than real grass due to the ground below needing compaction to make it solid and flat. In the worst cases you do get run off. Obviously this is going to be better than impermeable patios but it’s not an either or game, we need to be aware of these issues and choose other options that don’t cause run off (and other damage to the environment listed above).

For weekly gardening tips, join my Wild Way Newsletter 

41 thoughts on “17 reasons to avoid fake lawns – how bad is artificial grass for the environment?

  1. Hi Jack, I’m about to move to a new house where the prior owners have fake grass in their garden. Would it be more environmentally friendly to rip up the fake grass to be replaced with a natural lawn, or should I wait until the fake grass is beyond its life?

    1. A good question, chucking it on the tip now isn’t good – I would personally investigate recycling it to release the soil.

      1. Hi Jack.

        Just a quick question, you have just claimed that artificial grass isn’t recyclable but told Joseph to recycle, so clearly, it is recyclable?

        1. Hello “Anonymous”

          If you read point 2 of the article it explains this.

          In theory it is recyclable, in practice it is never recycled.

          Even if recycling becomes a thing in future, all of the processes and resources of creating, transporting and recycling and recreating an artificial lawn is awful for the environment compared to the alternatives.


          1. Hi Jack,
            Just wondering which is better, fully slabbing a garden or fake grass? A family member is insisting on getting rid of their grass, I wondered if there’s another alternative to fake grass? I know I see a lot of creepy crawlies in my patioed area so thought this might be better.

        2. Please look at DYMONDIA TO REPLACE YOUR GRASS. I’m an “ok “gardner but love it as it is like a low growing green plant that spreads and never needs cutting, easy to walk on or touch like grass. It doesnt need as much water as grass and I love It doesnt need to be MOWED !!! Easy to maintain, and it spreads like a little green carpet that is great to walk on. Solves your problem. Good for the environment. And I am not a professional gardener, just a happy homeowner trying to do my part for the environment.

    2. The obvious answer is wait until the lawn is beyond its natural life, then you can rip it out and replace with your choice.

    3. I would not buy a house with a fake lawn. It would be a deal-breaker for me. Either the existing homeowner would need to remove it and rehabilitate the soil and add real sod or seed as a condition of sale or I wouldn’t buy the house. Probably I wouldn’t buy the house as the soil would be polluted with microplastics for a lifetime.

  2. Just wandering we are thinking about laying astro turf sand based on a old tennis court concrete base but there is a very small river running along the side of it would it pollute the river

    1. Hi David,
      That’s a great question.
      It probably wouldn’t cause any immediate pollution to the river though there is always a risk of micro particles of plastic being released off it and into the river, or ‘blades of grass’ coming loose and getting into it, in exactly the same way these things would get into soil over the years. So, to be balanced about it, I wouldn’t say it pollutes in such a way that chemicals would that immediately wash into water. But over the years it will contribute small amounts of plastic to the water. Others might have additional or differing views or information to add.

  3. Thank you i was thinking of having one of my lawns AstroTurf not really thinking about effects on wildlife chemicals etc. Thank you I won’t be heaving it after reading your blog

  4. Yes I’ve got it in front garden has to be cleaned cats use it for toilet, hate to think what the carpets in there homes look like, getting back to the grass keep to small patch so can be taken up and cleaned. As seem to weed up from wind blown seeds.

  5. A previous owner of my house saw fit to cement the whole of the backyard except for a few garden beds. My plan was to lay down some fake grass under a gazebo and use pots and raised garden beds all around it to keep it in place. I’m going to add sculptures and water features. Do you have any suggestions as to what I might put under the gazebo instead of astro turf? Bearing in mind that I intend to put a table and chairs under there and sit surrounded by real plants, vegies etc.

    1. Hi Roz,
      Paving or decking is better – especially for a seating area. Astro turf is no good for seating spaces as the furniture will just crush the pile. Stone will last forever and wooden decking lasts for 10-20 years and even when thrown away will degrade in time unlike plastic.

  6. Hi Jack
    This is a fantastic article about horrible plastic grass. I have never understood why most of the new build housing in our area insist on laying the awful stuff. Real grass is a joy to have. So people please really think if it’s really necessary to lay it in your gardens/ outdoor spaces.

  7. Yes, yes, yes. This stuff is awful. We moved in to our house last year and the previous owner had covered the entire 6x21m garden in Astroturf. We have a south facing garden and it would burn our feet on sunny days..y oh is a landscape gardener too and first oppertu ity we’ve had we ripped it up and laid areal lawn. He also refuses to use it in his designs and I would like to start another petitionto ban or Regulate its use. To many gardens are being covered in the stuff

  8. Hi Jack,

    Great article. I was considering fake grass as both my wife and I have rheumatoid arthritis. After the rain for the last few weeks, the lawn became a jungle and mowing it caused me so much pain, it really made me feel like getting fake grass as I won’t be able to look after it for much longer as I also have a bad back.

    I guess I will research a good gardener in the area as the last one I had was not great. Hopefully I can find one that does a good job. Thanks for the article.

    1. Good luck Shai – hopefully a well maintained lawn is worth it for you. Another alternative, if you don’t use the lawn for much, is to increase the planting areas significantly around your patio. A well planned large planting area can be less maintenance than a lawn.

    2. Hello I’m currently sitting in my backyard listening to the sounds of machinery ripping up the ground nextdoor to begin the process of laying fake grass. I have lived in my home Miami for over 16 years and in the past 5 years my little neighborhood has changed so much. All the original houses (that were similar to mine) are coming down one by one and being replaced by huge white modern box-like houses. People tell me to be happy about my property values increasing but I plan on living in this home for several more years and these homes are popping up all around me. I have worked so hard to create a wildlife refuge in my backyard, planting native butterfly plants, bananas, mulberry and a passion vine on my wooden fence. i have a birdbath and a feeder which is visiting all day by blue jays, cardinals, doves and I this year a painted bunting stayed around for a few months in the winter. When I moved here there was a miserable lawn, full of weeds and dirt patches. Our lot is 6000 feet. The front yard has two huge mahogany trees that shade the entire area so we put mulch paths and pavers leading to the back yard. The side yards are small and have stones and the back yard is not very big so we decided to try a new sod to enjoy a patch of green in the back yard. Each time we planted (3 times over the course of 8 years) it died so I finally gave up and decided to look into ground covers that thrive in south Florida. I planted frog fruit that has a tiny flower that butterflies and bees like and it has spread over the yard and it looks beautiful. Frog fruit is native to this area and it’s so resilient and can be walked, or laid on and even cut from time to time. In addition to the trees and plants in my back yard I also have an area where I grow food during the growing season. I have mulched my yard for years and the soil in my back yard is FULL of worms. I also have a red wiggler worm farm next to my compost tumbler. My concern is that the FAKE grass that is being installed directly nextdoor to me will leach into my yard and kill the microorganisms and worms. The rains here in Miami during the summer months can be torrential at times and this compounds my concerns for run off. I’m so upset about this fake grass, it’s the antithesis of what I believe in.

      1. I think your garden will be ok for now Cindy. But it such a shame your neighbours are adding it to their own garden. Your garden sounds wonderful by the way 😊

  9. You have really made me think. I thought astro turf was better because it would save water in the dry summers.

  10. Thanks for taking the time to write and publish this compelling list of reasons to assist the battle to stave off the fake grass epidemic which is infecting the entire world – I will be spreading it whenever I get the opportunity

  11. The Royal Borough of Kensington, no less have just laid fake grass in The Little Wormwood Scrubs for young children and toddlers to play on! They put it down last week.

    The community fought off their plans to lay an entire football pitch with fake grass in St Marks Park in recent-years.

    Its shameful, after Cop 26. Local Councils must be asked not to use it.

    RBKC had huge floods in July, many are still not back in their damaged homes.

  12. Glad I read your review about artificial grass as I was in two minds of having it . I’m made up my mind now its real grass for me , as if nothing else its due to the wildlife . Thanks for opening my eyes.

  13. Thank you for sharing this. My husband wants fake grass for our yard, but my gut just didn’t feel right about it. I needed more than just my gut to change his mind. I was concerned about birds and squirrels not coming to hang out it in our yard anymore. I really enjoy the little wildlife we do get. My husband’s main concern was water and lawn maintenance. I think switching to a grey water system is the better solution.

    1. Yes, a travesty for wildlife – no more worms for birds to eat, no soil for life to live in. A lawn is really easy to look after it just takes a bit of regular care. Robot mowers or local gardeners are the answer.

  14. Hi Jack, we are in a flat with 2×7 meters outdoor space which is built as concrete slabs. We want to keep that area comfortable for the kids to play on, thought fake grass could do it but above makes me rethink that. What would you suggest to cover the space with?

    1. I think people will need to be inventive in spaces like this. When we grew up we played on patios and it wasn’t a problem.

      But if it’s really important to have something soft in that area, if you can I would remove the slabs entirely.

      If it’s just for occasional play a temporary rug.

      You can get recycled rubber square mats that connect together.

      Personally I’m more concerned where people remove grass and replace it with Astro turf. That’s the biggest issue. Of course in your situation you have to think what happens to that 2×7 metres of plastic afterwards. At the moment it’s not recyclable and it doesn’t look like it will be any time soon.

  15. Great article Jack. I note the UK’s largest builders merchant, Travis Perkins is currently selling plastic grass. Having previously worked for TP for 33 years I have just emailed their CEO regarding this and provided him with a link to your article. I don’t believe that selling this product is consistent with their environmental credentials and asked him to review this.

    1. Thanks for doing that Richard, if we all do a bit to spread the word we’ll make a difference. Good work.

  16. I have seriously been thinking a lot recently of replacing my grass with artificial grass, even to getting a quote. Basically due to my ageing years and the maintenance involved. However after reading all the points mentioned in your report am now thinking of other options

  17. Thank you for explaining fake grass. I was considering it because our governor has told us not to water our lawns to conserve water and ours is now dead. Almost everyone around has let their lawns dry up. Most are putting in fake grass. Someone told us to paint the dead grass green. That lasts only a few months and doesn’t seem much better than plastic. Since every day has been around 100F. what can survive without water? I’ve heard buffalo grass may work and black wood chips look interesting. What else is there? It’s a large front lawn. Looking for something easy and attractive.

    1. We decided on planting dichondra ground cover, starting from seeds. Our Los Angeles DWP program did not support this, but I’m happy with the results, green, needs very little work or mowing. Takes much less water. A few issues, like rabbits, that like it too, and skinny mushrooms popping up. – Terry

      1. Thanks for the update Terry, it sounds great. I wonder if there are some interesting local ground covering wildflowers you could add into the mix as well some day.

  18. I had never considered using fake grass which is essentially a large sheet of plastic to represent a garden. I know neighbours use artificial grass and are proud of them but personally I think it was a mistake but of course, I am not judging their decision. Even if the garden is not maintained, the biodiversity will still be there and if the garden is maintained well, it is a joy to see. Thanks for the article.

    1. Unfortunately, a plastic lawn removes a huge chunk of biodiversity in the lawn itself which lots of wildlife relies on within the soil. No matter how many other plants are added around the outside of it, it won’t make up for the loss of the lawn area itself which essentially becomes dead space.

  19. Hello, we’ve been thinking of replacing our mud pit garden that has much of a clay base and quite a weed ridden area. The area gets very waterlogged and with two football mad boys desperate to play out side, can’t because they continually slip on the mud.

    Please can you advise what recommendations there are to provide an area they can use as a football pitch in such circumstances?

    Many thanks

    1. Hi Philip,
      Lawns should not be used in the winter or they will turn to mud. Though there are tougher grass mixes available used for parks and playing fields worth investigating.

Leave a Reply